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Phrasal Verb

June 10, 2014

Raulan Khalida

4SA03

15610680

1. Bobbed up
Each time my head bobbed up, I looked at that name. ( page 5, line 7 )
“Bobbed up” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “bobbed up” is“menengok”

2. Came back
One day, however I ate the fire, and the fire came back, and it at me. ( page 3,line 18 )
“Came back” is idiomatic pharasal verb.
The meaning of “came back” is “ menyambar “

3. Dig it out
It is there in the oldest layer of my memory, and I cannot dig it out. ( page 1, line 8 )
“Dig it out” is an idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “dig it out” is “mengingatnya”.

4. Dripped out
Instantly , my feet were stabbed with an inciess that ran up my legs, through my body, and dripped out my nose. ( page 4, line 4 ).
“Dripped out” is an literal phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Dripped out” is “menetes”

5. Fallen out
Where the gums had burned, the teeth had fallen out. ( page 3, line 2 ).
“Fallen out “ is an idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Fallen out” is “terlepas dari gusi”

6. Falling out
The day before, she told me she had stared at an unlucky star falling out of the sky and then it dropped into her open mouth and burned her face. ( page 3, line 23 )
“Falling out” is an literal phrasal verb.
The meaning of “falling out” is “jatuh”

7. Get up
She huffed, set the paper on the low cupboard, and mentioned that i sholud get up. ( page 1, line 21 ).
“Get up” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Get up” is “beranjak”

8. Grew up
Hand-talk, face-talk, and chalk-talk were the languages I grew up , soundless and strong. ( page 2, line 15 )
“Grew up” is literal phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Grew up” is “ dibesarkan”

9. Holding it up
‘you wear this, ‘I demanded , holding it up”. ( page 2, line 19 )
“Holding it up” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Holding it up” is “menggenggam”

10. Leaked out
‘I’m cold, I whimpered, and tears leaked out. ( page 4, line 27 ).
“Leaked out” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Leaked out” is “menetes”

11. Leap out
‘Ai-ya, seeing her, even a demon would leap out of his skin. ( page 2, line 33 )
“Leap out” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Leap out” is “mengelupas”

12. Made up
I laughed and clapped my hands, liking this made up story best. ( page 3, line 21 )
“Made up” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “made up” is “berganti”

13. Poke out
Stop that, Doggie she gently scolded, or the tears will freeze into icicles and poke out your eyes. ( page 4, line 24 )
“Poke out” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “poke out” is “jatuh”

14. Pulled off
She pulled off her scraft and pointed to her face and bunched her brows. ( page 2, line 22 ).
“Pulled off” is literal phrasal verb.
The meaning of “pulled off” is “melepas”

15. Ran up
Instantly, my feet were stabbed with an iciness that ran up my legs, through my body, and dripped out my nose. ( page 4, line 4 )
“ran up” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Ran up” is “merambat”

16. Sat down
Precious auntie sat down on a stool and drew me to her lap. ( page 4, line 28 )
“Sat down” is literal phrasal verb.
The meaning of “sat down” is “duduk”

17. Stuck out
She wet down any strands that stuck out like spider legs. ( page 2, line 3 )
“Stuck out” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “stuck out” is “terurai’

18. Take off
Take off your shoes. ( page 4, line 2 )
“Take off” is idiomatic phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Take off” is “Lepaskan”

19. Took out
I took out a pretty comb, ivory with a rooster carved at each end. ( page 2, line 17 )
“Took out” is literal phrasal verb.
The meaning of “Took out” is “mengambil”

 

20. Wet down
She wet down any strands that stuck out like spider legs. ( page 2, line 3 )
“Wet down” is literal phrasal verb.
The meaning of “wet down” is “membasahi”

Penerjemahan Berbantuan Komputer

June 10, 2014

Raulan Khalida

4SA03

15610680

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 She was born in a Water Dragon Year and I in a Fire Dragon Year. Dia lahir ditahun Naga Air dan saya di Naga api. Dia lahir ditahun Naga Air dan aku ditahun Naga Api.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• In google translate the word I is ‘saya’ should replace to ‘aku’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 So we are the same but for opposite reasons. Jadi kita adalah sama tetapi untuk alasan yang berlawanan. Jadi sebenarnya kita lahir ditahun yang sama tetapi dengan alasan yang bertentangan.

Analysis :
1. In google translate ‘jadi kita adalah sama’ should replace to ‘jadi sebenarnya kita lahir ditahun yang sama.
2. Eliminating word :
• adalah.

3. Choice of word :
• berlawanan should replace to bertentangan.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 I know all this, yet this one name I cannot remember. Saya tahu semua ini, namun nama yang satu ini saya tidak ingat. Aku tahu maksud semua ini, tetapi ada satu nama yang aku tidak bisa mengingatnya.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• saya should replace to aku.
• Namun shoud replace to tetapi.
2. Add a word :
• In google translate ‘saya tahu semua ini’ should replace to ‘aku tahu maksud semua ini’.
• In google translate ‘saya tidak ingat’ to be ‘aku tidak bisa mengingatnya’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 It is there in the oldest layer of my memory, and I cannot dig it out. Itu ada di lapisan tertua dari ingatan saya, dan saya tidak bisa menggalinya keluar. Ingatan itu berada dipaling dasar ingatanku, sehingga aku tidak bisa mengingatnya.

Analysis :
1. Change the phrase :
• In google translate the meaning of the oldest layer is ‘ada di lapisan tertua dari ingatan’ should replace to ‘berada dipaling dasar ingatan’.
• In google translate the meaning of dig it out is ‘menggalinya keluar’ should replace to ‘mengingatnya’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 A hundred times I have gone over that morning when Precious Auntie wrote it down. Seratus kali saya pergi lebih pagi bibi berharga menuliskannya. Sering kali aku pergi lebih pagi ketika bibi tercinta menuliskannya.

Analysis :

1. Using synonym :
• seratus kali replace to sering kali.
2. Change of word :
• Saya should replace to aku.
3. Change the subject :
• Precious Auntie should replace to bibi tercinta.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 I was only six then, but very smart. Saya hanya enam itu, tapi sangat cerdas. Waktu itu aku baru berumur 6 tahun, tapi sudah sangat cerdas.

Analysis :
1. Tense
• Because that sentence is past tense, so in Indonesia use ‘waktu itu’ and ‘sudah’ to explain that the incident happened in the past

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 I could count. Aku bisa menghitung. Aku sudah bisa menghitung.

Analysis :
1. Tens
• In google translate ‘could’ is bisa, after revice replace to sudah bisa.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 I could read. Saya bisa membaca. Aku sudah bisa membaca.

Analysis :
1. Tense
• In google translate ‘could’ is bisa, after reviced replace to sudah bisa.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 I had a memory for everything, and here is my memory of that winter morning. Saya punya memori untuk segala sesuatu, dan di sini adalah kenangan saya yang dingin pagi. Aku mempunya ingatan tentang semuanya, dan dimusim dingin pagi inilah ingatanku muncul.

Analysis :
1. Reference :
• In google translate the word had is ‘punya’ should replace to ‘mempunyai’.
2. Choice of word :
• In google translate the word I is ‘saya’ should replace to ‘aku’
• In google translate the words for everything is ‘untuk segala sesuatu’ should replace to ‘tentang semuanya’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 I was sleepy, still lying on the brick k’ang bed I shared with Precious Auntie. Saya mengantuk, masih terbaring di tempat tidur bata k’ang saya berbagi dengan bibi berharga. Aku mengantuk, masih berbaring di atas tempat tidur yang terbuat dari bata k’ang yang mana aku seranjang dengan bibi tercinta.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :

 

• In google translate the word lying is ‘terbaring’ should replace to ‘berbaring’.
• In google translate the sentence of I shared with Precious Auntie is ‘saya berbagi dengan bibi berharga’ shoild replace to ‘aku seranjang dengan bibi tercinta’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 The flue to our little room was furthest from the stove in the common room, and the bricks beneath me had long turned cold. Buang ke kamar kecil kami adalah terjauh dari kompor di common room, dan batu bata di bawah saya sudah lama berubah dingin. Cerobong asap di kamar kami yang kecil dulu sangat jauh dari kompor di ruang makan, dan batu bata yang ada di bawahku sudah lama berubah menjadi dingin.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• In google translate the meaning of the flue is ‘buang’ should replace to ‘cerobong asap’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 I felt my shoulder being shaken. Saya merasa bahu saya sedang terguncang. Aku merasa bahuku gemetar.

Analysis :

1. Choice of word :
• Subject ‘saya’ should replace to ‘aku’.
• terguncang should replace to gemetar.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 When I opened my eyes, Precious Auntie began to write on a scrap of paper, then showed me what she had written. Ketika saya membuka mata saya, bibi yang berharga mulai menulis pada secarik kertas, kemudian menujukan apa yang telah ditulisnya. Ketika aku membuka mata, bibi tercinta mulai menulis di secarik kertas, kemudian menunjukan padaku apa yang telah Ia tulis.

Analysis :
1. Change the prepotition
• In google translate the word on is ‘pada’after revised should replace to ‘di’.
2. In this sentence just change the wording.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 ‘I can’t see,’I complained. ‘Saya tidak bisa melihat,’ saya mengeluh. ‘Aku tidak bisa melihat,’Aku mengeluh.

Analysis :
1. Change of subject :
3. “Saya” should replace to “aku”.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 ‘It’s too dark.’ Itu terlalu gelap. ‘Ini gelap sekali.’

Analysis :
1. Change of word :
• Terlalu gelap should replace to gelap sekali.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 She huffed, set the paper on the low cupboard, and motioned that I should get up. Dia gusar mengatur kertas di lemari rendah dan memeberi isyarat bahwa saya harus bangun. Bibi marah, sambil merapikan kertas pada lemari bagian bawah, dan memberi isyarat bahwa aku harus bangun.

Analysis :

1. Choice of word :
• Mengatur should replace to merapikan.
• In google translate on the low cupboard is“di lemari rendah” should replace to “pada lemari bagian bawah”.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 She lighted the teapot brazier and tied a scarf over her nose and mouth when it started to smoke. Dia menyalakan tungku teko dan diikat syal menutupi hidung dan mulutnya ketika mulai merokok. Ia menyalakan tungku teko dan memakai syal untuk menutupi hidung dan mulutnya ketika Ia ingin meniup asap itu.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• In google translate the subject she is ‘dia’ should replace to ‘ia’.
• In google translate tied is ‘diikat’ should replace to ‘memakai’.

 

 

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
1 She poured face-washing water into the teapot’s chamber, and when it was cooked, she started our day. Dia menuangkan air cuci muka ke dalam kamar teko, dan ketika itu dimasak ia mulai hari kami. Ia menuangkan air untuk cuci muka ke dalam teko dan ketika air itu dimasak, saat inilah kami memulai hari.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• In google translate the phrase of face-washing water is ‘air cuci muka’ after revised should replace to ‘air untuk cuci muka’.
• In google translate the sentence when it was cooked is ‘ketika dimasak’ after revised should replace to ‘ketika air itu dimasak’.
• The sentence ‘Ia mulai hari kami’ should replace to ‘saat inilah kami memulai hari’.

Page Source Language Text
Google Translation Revised
2 She scrubbed my face and ears. Ia menggosok wajah dan telinga saya. Ia megusap wajah dan telingaku.

Analysis :

1. Choice of word :
• Saya should replace to ‘ku’.
• Menggosok should replace to mengusap.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 She parted my hair and combed my bangs. Dia berpisah rambut saya dan disisir poni saya. Ia merapikan rambutku dan menyisir poniku.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• berpisah should replace to merapikan.
2. Change the subject :
• “saya” should replace to “ku”.

 

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 She wet down any strands that stuck out like spider legs. Dia basah turun setiap helai yang mencuat seperti kaki laba-laba. Membasahi setiap helainya yang terurai seperti kaki laba-laba

Analysis :
1. Eliminating subject ‘dia’.
2. Choice of word :
• In google translate the word stuck is ‘mencuat’ after revised should replace to ‘terurai’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 Then she gathered the long part of my hair into two bundles and braided them. Maka ia mengumpulkan bagian panjang dari rambut saya menjadi dua bundel dan dikepang mereka. Kemudian Ia memisahkan bagian yang panjang dari rambutku menjadi dua bundel dan dikepanglah rambutku.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• maka should replace to kemudian.

• mengumpulkan should replace to memisahkan.
2. Change the subject : ‘saya’ should replace to ‘ku’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 She banded the top with red ribbon, the bottom with green Dia banded atas dengan pita merah, bagian bawah dengan hijau. Ia memitanya dengan pita merah dibagian atas, dan dengan pita hijau dibagian bawah.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• Banded should replace to memitanya.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 I wagged my head so that my braids swung like the happy ears of palace dogs. Saya mengibaskan kepala saya sehingga saya kepang berayun seperti telinga bahagia anjing istana. Aku mengibaskan kepala sehingga kepanganku berayun seperti telinga anjing istana yang bahagia.

Analysis :

1. Choice of word :
• Saya should replace to aku.
2. Telinga bahagia anjing istana should replace to telinga anjing istana yang bahagia.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2. And Precious Auntie sniffed the air as if she, too, were a dog wondering, What’s that good smell? That sniff was how she said my nickname, Doggie. Dan bibi berharga menghirup udara seolah-olah dia juga adalah anjing bertanya-tanya, Apa itu bau yang baik? Mengendus begitulah katanya nama panggilan saya, Doggie. Dan bibi tercinta menghirup udara seolah-olah Ia adalah seekor anjing yang sedang bertanya-tanya, bau seperti apakah yang enak? Lalu mengendus-endus sambil menyebutkan nama panggilanku, Doggie.

Analysis :
1. Change the subject :
• Bibi berharga should replace to bibi tercinta.
2. Choice of words :
• Bau yang baik should replace to bau yang enak.
3. In this sentence just chance the wording.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 That was how she talked. Itu adalah bagaimana ia berbicara. begitulah cara bibi berbicara.

Analysis :
1. Add a word :
• In google translate ‘itu adalah bagaimana Ia berbicara’ to be ‘begitulah cara bibi berbicara.’
2. Change the subject :
• Ia should replace to bibi.

 

 

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 She had no voice, just gasps and wheezes, the snorts of a ragged wind. Dia tidak punya suara, hanya terengah-engah dan mengi, para dengusan angin compang-camping. Ia kehabisan suara, hanya engahan dan desahan, dengan hembusan angin yang tidak teratur.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• In google translate had no voice is ‘tidak mempunyai suara’ should replace to ‘kehabisan suara’.
• Terengah-engah should replace to engahan.
• Para dengusan angin compang camping should replace to dengan hembusan angin yang tidak teratur.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 She told me things with grimaces and groans, dancing eyebrows and darting eyes. Dia mengatakan kepada saya hal-hal dengan meringis dan erangan, alis menari dan melesat mata. Bibi mengatakan hal-hal itu kepadaku dengan menyeringai dan merintih, alisanya menari dan matanya melesat.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word
• In google translate the word she is ‘dia ‘ after revised should replace to ‘bibi’.
• In google translate the word grimaces is ‘meringis’ should replace to ‘menyeringai’.
• In google translate the word groans is ‘erangan’ after revised to be ‘merintih’.
2. Reference
• In google translate the words dancing eyebrows is ‘lis menari’ after revised to be ‘alisnya menari’
• In google translate the words darting eyes is ‘melesat mata’ after revised to be ‘matanya melesat’

 

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 She wrote about the world on my carry-around chalkboard. Ia menulis tentang dunia di sekitar saya membawa-papan tulis. Ia menulis tentang dunia yang ada di sekitarku di papan tulis.

Analysis :
1. Choice of word :
• Di sekitar saya should replace to yang ada di sekitarku.
2. Reference
• In Google Translate the word wrote is ‘menulis’ after revised to be ‘menuliskan.’

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 She also made pictures with her blackened hands. Dia juga membuat gambar dengan tangan menghitam. Bibi juga membuat gambar-gambar dengan tangannya yang hitam

Analysis :
1. Change the subject :
• Dia should replace to bibi.
2. Choice of word :
• In google translate the word pictures is ‘gambar’ should replace to ‘gambar-gambar’, because pictures are plural.
3. Change the phrase
• In Google Translate the phrase of her blackened hands is ‘tangan menghitam’ after revised shoulde replace to ‘tangannya yang hitam’.

Page Source Language Text Google Translation Revised
2 Hand-talk, face-talk, and chalk talk were the languages I grew up with, soundless and strong. Tangan-talk, wajah-talk, dan bicara kapur adalah bahasa saya dibesarkan dengan, tanpa suara dan kuat. Tangannya berbicara, wajahnya berbicara, dan kapurnya pun berbicara dengan bahasa-bahasa aku dibesarkan, tanpa suara dan kuat..

Analysis :
1. Reference :
• In Google Translate the words hand talkis ‘bicara tangan’ after revised should replace to ‘tangannya berbicara’.

• In google translate the words face talk is ‘wajah berbicara’ after revised should replace to ‘wajahnya berbicara’.
• In google translate the words chalk talk is ‘kapur bicara’ after revised should replace to‘kapurnya berbicara’.
2. Choice of word
• In google translate the word the languages is ‘bahasa’ after revised to be ‘bahasa bahasa’.
• In google translate the words I is ‘saya’ after revised to be ‘aku’.

poetry

January 21, 2014

Raulan Khalida

4SA03

15610680

 

“a letter to mother”

 

Your smile make me happy

When we laugh together

I fell glad when we share the pain

Please mom, don’t be sad

It’s always hurt to see you cry

haiku

January 21, 2014

Raulan Khalida

4SA03

15610680

 

1. I’m lying here the room’s pitch dark (Jan, 20 @ 11:45 pm)

2. I get down on my knees and say a little pray (Jan, 21 @ 5:03 am)

3. when I looked in the mirror. I saw how beautiful God’s creation (Jan, 21 @ 7:13 am)

4. I sat alone enjoying music accompanied by winds that blow breezy (Jan, 21 @ 2:33 pm)

5. I close my eyes for a moment and the moment’s gone (Jan, 21 @ 5:15 pm)

poetry

January 21, 2014

Raulan Khalida

4SA03

15610680

 

“untitled”

if you have spare time

I hope we can talk even for a few minute

I’m always all by myself all the time and have no one to talk

I know you are busy with work

   even if you are not interested in my stories, please have time for me

   thanks a lot for your care, thank you so much

Contoh Indirect Sentence

October 30, 2013
Raulan Khalida
4SA03
15610680
 
 
Indirect sentence from that article :
 
1. he said that, how many potential future Nobel Prize winners are struggling to find research support today, or have been sent home on furlough?
 

2. He said that, experienced five years of failure before the first signs of success.

Example “direct sentence” from article.

October 8, 2013

Raulan Khalida

4SA03

15610680

 

For 3 Nobel Winners, a Molecular Mystery Solved

Three Americans won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine on Monday for discovering the machinery that regulates how cells transport major molecules in a cargo system that delivers them to the right place at the right time.

The Karolinska Institute in Stockholm announced the winners: James E. Rothman, 62, of Yale University; Randy W. Schekman, 64, of the University of California, Berkeley; and Dr. Thomas C. Südhof, 57, of Stanford University. Their basic research solved the mystery of how cells, which are factories producing molecules, organize a system to transport the molecules within cells and export them outside.

As it turns out, the molecules are moved around the cell in small packages called vesicles, and each scientist discovered different facets of what is needed to ensure that the right cargo is shipped to the correct destination at precisely the right time. For example, pancreatic cells make insulin and release it in the blood. Chemical signals called neurotransmitters are sent from one nerve cell to another to allow people to walk, talk, sing, pull their hand away from a hot stove and communicate. The molecular traffic within cells is as complicated as rush hour in any city, as the discoveries by the three Nobel winners revealed.

The world’s most prestigious scientific award arrived at a particularly dark time for federal science research: the National Institutes of Health, the agency that paid an estimated $49 million to help underwrite the winners’ work, has been forced to send home most of its staff because of the government shutdown. Basic research of the type that just won the Nobel is seen as particularly vulnerable to Capitol Hill budget cutters.

“This is a stark reminder of how these are the best of times and the worst of times for American biomedical research,” Dr. Francis Collins, the N.I.H. director, said in an interview on Monday. “Today we celebrate the three N.I.H.-supported Nobel Prize winners, but we’re being slammed by sequestration and a government shutdown.”

Even before the shutdown, scientists were facing severe budgetary difficulties that restrict the kind of research that led to this year’s Nobel Prize, Dr. Collins noted. “How many potential future Nobel Prize winners are struggling to find research support today, or have been sent home on furlough?” he said. “How many of them are wondering whether they should do something else — or move to another country? It is a bitter irony for the future of our nation’s health that N.I.H. is being hamstrung this way, just when the science is moving forward at an unprecedented pace.”

One of the new laureates, Dr. Rothman, touched on this point in a news conference, saying that he began his scientific career when “your idea was the only limit, any risk could be taken no matter how difficult.” He experienced five years of failure before the first signs of success, he said. Today, he said, there is less support for risk ideas, “and it is becoming a pressing national issue, if not an international one.”

All three laureates said they undertook their research amid skepticism from scientific leaders.

Dr. Schekman discovered a set of genes that were required for vesicle traffic. Dr. Rothman unraveled protein machinery that allows vesicles to fuse with their targets to permit transfer of cargo. Dr. Südhof revealed how signals instruct vesicles to release their cargo with precision.

The tiny vesicles, which have a covering known as a membrane, shuttle the cargo between different compartments or fuse with the membrane. The transport system activates nerves. It also controls the release of hormones and enzymes. Disturbances in this exquisitely precise control system for transporting and delivering cellular cargo cause serious damage that, in turn, is believed to contribute to some neurological diseases, diabetes and immunological disorders.

Dr. Schekman, who was born in St. Paul, Minn., used one-celled yeast as a model system when he began his research in the 1970s. He found that vesicles piled up in parts of the cell and that the cause of the congestion was genetic. He went on to identify three classes of genes that control different facets of the cell’s transport system. A graduate of the University of California, Los Angeles, and Stanford, where he obtained his Ph.D. in 1974, Dr. Schekman joined the faculty at Berkeley in 1976. His findings enabled the biotechnology industry to exploit the secretion system in yeast to create and spit out pharmaceutical and industrial products like insulin and hepatitis B vaccines.

Dr. Rothman, who was born in Haverhill, Mass., studied vesicle transport in mammalian cells in the 1980s and ’90s. He discovered that a protein complex allows vesicles to dock and fuse with their target membranes. During the fusion, proteins on the vesicles and target membranes bind to each other like the two sides of a zipper. The fact that there are many such proteins and that they bind only in specific combinations ensures that cargo is delivered to a precise location; the same principle operates inside the cell and when a vesicle binds to the cell’s outer membrane to release its contents.

Dr. Rothman received a Ph.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1976 and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1978, he moved to Stanford, where he started his research on the vesicles of the cell. He has worked at Princeton University, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Columbia University. In 2008, he joined the faculty of Yale, where he is chairman of the department of cell biology.

Dr. Südhof, 57, a United States citizen who was born in Göttingen, West Germany, studied neurotransmission, the process by which nerve cells communicate with other cells in the brain. He helped transform what had been a rough outline into a number of molecular activities to provide insights into the elaborate mechanisms at the crux of neurological activities, from the simplest to the most sophisticated. A graduate of the Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen, he moved to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas in 1983 and became an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1991. In 2008, he was appointed professor of molecular and cellular physiology at Stanford.

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: October 7, 2013

An earlier version of this article misstated Randy W. Schekman’s age. He is 64, not 65.

 

direct sentence from that article :

1. “How many potential future Nobel Prize winners are struggling to find research support today, or have been sent home on furlough?” he said.

2. He experienced five years of failure before the first signs of success, he said.